From: Journal of Financial Crime

Author(s):Mark Lauchs , (School of Justice, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia)

Rebecca Keane, (School of Justice, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia)



This paper aims to provide an overview of the illicit tobacco market in Australia. It attempts to build a picture of the sources of demand, size of the market and methods of supply.

This paper is based on collation of disparate government reports, industry research, media and court documents. It is a preliminary paper in the absence of better source data.

From: Crime Prevention in the 21st Century

Stefano Caneppele


This chapter presents a case study on crime proofing of legislation. The case study regards the new EU Tobacco Products Directive. The study applied the crime proofing methodology to the draft version (submitted to the EU Parliament) in order to understand whether the new regulation may unintentionally have generated criminal opportunities. It revealed that some provisions, namely the ban on menthol and slim cigarettes, would significantly increase the crime risks of an enlargement of the illicit market. Eventually, the European Parliament did not vote for the ban of slim cigarettes which—according to the analysis—would play a key role in increasing ITTP risks. On the other hand, the entry into enforcement of the menthol ban was also planned only after a phase-out period of 4 years. It is impossible to say whether and how much this study persuaded European regulators. However, this exercise proved the relevance of the CPL methodology in crime prevention.

From: Journal of Global Public Health

Ross MacKenzie, Jappe Eckhardt & Ade Widyati Prastyani

Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world’s third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI’s rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated’s global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’.