From: Tobacco Control
Diana Silver, Margaret M Giorgio, Jin Yung Bae, Geronimo Jimenez, James Macinko
Background New York City (NYC) has strict minimum cigarette price and tax stamp laws, but evidence regarding the extent of evasion of such laws in over-the-counter sales is scarce.
Methods 830 packs were purchased at licensed tobacco retailers at 92 randomly selected neighbourhoods in NYC in spring and fall 2014, following the establishment of NYC’s minimum price law. The χ2 analyses of illegal tax stamps on pack, by retailer type and data collection period, are presented.
From: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
1Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Center and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
2Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Center and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
From: George Washington University
Will Nichols and Max Kravitz
War is expensive and the need to raise money for weapons and materiel often turns militias to the tactics of into organized criminals. The transformation of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) rebels into a major cocaine cartel as well as the Islamist Taliban insurgents of Afghanistan taxing and protecting opium and heroin smuggling routes are but two famous examples. Criminal groups also often capitalize on the breakdown of rule of law in war zones and failing states to proliferate and expand their own illegal profits and activities. As globalization continues to erode sovereign state boundaries and internationalize non-state actors and criminal outfits, the nexus between insurgent warfare and transnational organized crime becomes all the more important to understand.