An article in the American Journal of Public Health states that,

A large tax increase led to what focus group participants described as a pervasive illegal cigarette market in a low-income minority community. Perceived pro-smoking community norms, a stressful social and economic environment, and the availability of illegal cigarettes worked together to reinforce smoking and undermine cessation.

The complete study is attached below.

The $5 Man

A Research Letter in CMAJ states,

Current tobacco-control strategies seek to inhibit and reduce smoking among adolescents. However, such strategies are probably undermined by the contraband tobacco market.

The complete article is attached below.

Use of contraband cigarettes among adolescent daily smokers in Canada