CRE Library of Reference Works: The Regulation of Marine Sound

Dec 26, 2012

This page is a “Living Library” of studies dedicated to the Regulation of  Seismic Exploration.


Our readers are encouraged to provide CRE with additional studies  by posting  them  on the CRE website at this address or by email  to CRE.


The following studies are referenced   in ” A Review of  the Effects of Seismic Surveys on Marine Mammals “[1]–the subject of the CRE peer review.  The  CRE peer review is being conducted through the use of an Interactive Public Docket( IPD) [2], a concept first developed by CRE,  and demonstrates that an informed venting of regulatory issues in an open forum by stakeholders and the public can provide a valuable input to federal regulators  as encouraged by the Administraton’s  “Open Government” initiative.


CRE’s  many readers are encouraged to present  their comments on the articles which follow consistent with CRE’s Editorial Policy.  Comments can be posted on the homepage by using the  “Submit a Post”  function thereon.  Comments can be submitted anonymously without registration.



Library:   ” A Review of the  Effects of Seismic Surveys  on Marine Mammals”  [1]


Au, W.L., Temporary threshold shift in hearing induced by an octave band of continuous noise in the bottlenose dolphin


Baird, R.W.,   Studying diving behavior of whales and dolphins using suction-cup attached tags


Balcomb, K.C.,  A mass stranding of cetaceans caused by naval sonar in the Bahamas


Bohne, B.A.,  Examination of potential hearing damage in Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica


Bohne, B.A.,  Evaluation of inner ear pathology in Weddell seals


Bowles, A.E., Relative abundance and behavior of marine mammals exposed to transmission from the Heard Island feasibility test


Crum, L.A., Acoustically enhanced bubble growth at low frequencies and its implications for human diver and marine mammal safety


Cudahy, E.,  A review of the potential for in vivo tissue damage by exposure to underwater sound


Culik, B.M.,  Reactions of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and herring (Clupea harengus) to acoustic alarms


Delong, R.L.,  Diving patterns of northern elephant seal bulls


Engas, A.,  Effects of seismic shooting on catch and catch-availability of cod and haddock


Evans, D.I., Joint interim report Bahamas marine mammal stranding event of 15-16 March 2000


Fedak, M.A., Attachment of a radio tag to the fur of seals


Finneran, J.J., Auditory and behavioral responses of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to impulsive sounds resembling distant signatures of underwater explosions


Finneran, J.J.,  Auditory and behavioral responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) to single underwater impulses from an arc-gap transducer


Fletcher, S., Onboard acoustic recording from diving northern elephant seals


Frantzis, A.,  Does acoustic testing strand whales?


Gausland, I.,  The impact of seismic surveys on marine life


Gentry, R.L.,   Mass Stranding of Beaked Whales in the Galapagos Islands, April 2000


Goertner, J.F.,  Prediction of underwater explosion safe ranges for sea mammals


Goold, J.C., Acoustic assessment of populations of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) in conjunction with seismic surveying


Goold, J.C.,  Broadband spectra of seismic survey air gun emissions, with reference to dolphin auditory thresholds


Greenwood, P.L., Salivary and plasma cortisol as an index of stress in goats


Harris, R.E., Seal responses to air gun soundsduring summer seismic surveys in the AlaskanBeaufort Sea


Harwood, J., The implications of developments on the Atlantic Frontier for marine mammals


Hooker, S.K.,  Deep-diving behaviour of the northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus (Cetacea : Ziphiidae)


Hoyt, E., The worldwide value and extent of whale watching, 1995


Jepson, P.D.,  Was sonar responsible for a spate of whale deaths after an Atlantic military exercise?


Johnson, C.S.,  Masked tonal hearing thresholds in the beluga whale


Johnson, M.P., A digital acoustic recording tag for measuring the response of wild marine mammals to sound


Kastak, D., Underwater temporary threshold shift induced by octaveband noise in three species of pinniped


Ketten, D.R., Blast injury in humpback whale ears: evidence and implications


Kryter, K.D., The effects of noise on man


Laroche, C., The growth of and recovery from TTS in human subjects exposed to impact noise


Lewis, T., Acoustic Cetacean Monitoring 1996 to 1999: towards the development of an automated system-summary report


Ljungblad, D.K.,  Observations on the behavioral responses of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) to active geophysical vessels in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea


Lydersen, C.,  Salinity and temperature structure of a freezing Arctic fjord – monitored by white whales (Delphinapterus leucas)


Madsen, P. T.,  Male sperm whale behavior during exposure to distant seismic survy pulses


Malme, C.I., Investigations of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum industry activities on migrating gray whale behavior/Phase II: January 1984 migration


Malme, C.I.,  Observations of feeding gray whale responses to controlled industrial noise exposure. In: Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions


Martin, A. R., Dive form and function in belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) of the eastern Canadian High Arctic


Mate, B.R.,  A change in sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) distribution correlated to seismic surveys in the Gulf of Mexico


Mate, B.R.,  Movements of North Pacific blue whales during the feeding season off southern California and their southern fall migration


McCauley, R.D.,  High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears


McConnell, B. J.,  Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean


McDonald, M.A.,  Blue and fin whales observed on a seafloor array in the Northeast Pacific


McGlone, J.J., Shipping stress and social status effects pig performance, plasma cortisol, natural killer cell activity, and leukocyte numbers


Melnick, W.,   Human temporary threshold shift (TTS) and damage risk


National Research Council (NRC)., Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound


National Research Council (NRC)., Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals


Norris, K.S.,  A theory for the function of the spermaceti organ of the sperm whale (Physeter catodon)


Payne, R., Orientation by means of long range acoustic signaling in baleen whales


Rankin, S.,  Effects of low frequency seismic exploration sounds on the distribution of cetaceans in the northern Gulf of Mexico


Reeves, R.R.,  Bowhead whales and acoustic seismic surveys in the Beaufort Sea


Richardson, W.J.,  Reactions of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) to seismic exploration in the Canadian Beaufort Sea


Richardson, W.J.,  Displacement of migrating bowhead whales by sounds from seismic surveys in shallow waters of the Beaufort Sea


Richmond, D.R.,  Far-field underwater blast injuries produced by small charges


Ridgway, S.H., Behavioral responses and temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, to 1-second tones of 141 to 201 dB re 1 micro Pa


Ridgway, S.H.,  Dolphins and the bends


Schlundt, C.E.,  Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, and white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, after exposure to intense tones


Skalski, J.R.,  Effects of sounds from a geophysical survey device on catch-per-unit effort in a hook-and-line fishery for Rockfish (Sebastes)


Stone, C.J., The effects if seismic activity on marine mammals in UK waters, 1998-2000


Thomas, J.A.,  Behavior and blood catechaloamines of captive belugas during playbacks of noise from an oil drilling platform


Thompson, D., Cardiac responses of grey seals during diving at sea


Thompson, D., How long should a dive last?


Thompson, D.,  Movements, diving and foraging behavior of grey Seals (Halichoerus-grypus)


Turnpenny, A.W.H.,  The effects on marine fish, diving mammals and birds of underwater sound generated by seismic surveys.


Tyack, P.,  Controlled exposure experiments to determine the efforts of noise on marine mammals


Wartzok,D.,  Factors Affecting the Responses of Marine Mammals to Acoustic Disturbance


Watkins, W.A.,  Sperm whale surface activity from tracking by radio and satellite tags


Watkins, W.A., Sperm whales tagged with transponders and tracked underwater by sonar


Yelverton, J.T.,  Safe distances from underwater explosion for mammals and birds



Library:   CRE  IPD’s Related  to Marine Issues


Marine Mammals

Ocean Zoning

NGO Energy Fourm




Library:  CRE  Websites  Related to Federal Regulatory Policy

OIRA Watch

Regulatory Cybersecurity

FACA  Under Fire

WatchDog Watch




             Search  Capabilty Across all  CRE Websites and IPD’s


Library:   CRE  Regulatory Filings on Marine Noise and Related Marine Activities (Through December 2012)


CRE White Paper Evaluating the Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan

The White Paper is available in its entirety here: Evaluation of Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan


CRE Comments on the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) Information Collection Request (ICR) for Certain Offshore Activities, Including Seismic

Comments are available in their entirety: BSEE ICR on Offshore Activities


CRE Brazil Comments on Draft Guidance to Manage the Risk to Marine Mammals from Man-made Sound Sources in Irish Water

Comments available in their entirety here: CRE Brazil Comments on Man-Made Sound Sources in Irish Water


CRE Brazil Comments on SCientific Synthesis on the Impacts of Underwater Noise on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity and Habitats

Comments available in their entirety here: CRE Brazil Comments on UN Noise Report


CRE Comments on Supplemental EIS for Proposed Western Planning Area, Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area, Lease Sale 231

Comments available in their entirety here: CRE Comments on BOEM SEIS


CRE Comments on Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (“DPEIS”) For Geological and Geophysical Exploration on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf.

Comments available in their entirety here: CRE Comments on Atlantic PEIS


CRE Comments on NMFS Draft Guidelines for Assessing Marine Mammal Stocks and CRE’s Comments on Guidelines for Assessing Marine Mammal Stocks: Report of the GAMM III Workshop

Comments available in their entirety here: CRE Comments on NFMS Guidelines and  GAMMS III


CRE Comments on NMFS’s Artic EIS

Comments available in their entirety here: CRE Comments on Arctic EIS


CRE Comments on the National Ocean Council’s Draft Implementation Plan

Comments available in their entirety here: Comments on draft implementation plan–Center for Regulatory Effectiveness


CRE Comments on Gulf of Mexico DEIS

Comments available in their entirety here: CRE Comments on BOEM DEIS Gulf of Mexico


CRE  Comments on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the National Marine Sanctuaries’ permit program.

Comments available in their entirety here: CRE Comments on NOAA Marine Sanctuaries ICR


CRE Submits Comment to BOEM on Draft PEIS for OCS 5 Year Plans

Please read the comments in their entirety here: PEIS Proposed 5yr OCS Leasing Comments–Center for Regulatory Effectiveness


CRE Comments on  Proposed Information Collection Request (“ICR”), Permits for Incidental Taking of Endangered or Threatened Species,

Comments available in their entirety here: nmfsesaicrcomments


CRE  Comments on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) National Marine Protected Areas Center External Review

Comments available in their entirety here: mmmpaoverviewcomments


Marine Mammal Commission Responds  Favorably to CRE Request to Issue DQA Guidelines


Comments by the Center for Regulatory Effectiveness on BOEMRE ICRS OCS Seismic




CRE Comments on BOEMRE’s  ICR for Geological and Geophysical Explorations of the OCS




CRE Comments on Draft  NOAA Scientific Integrity Policy and Handbook for Public Review




CRE Files Comments on BOEMRE’s Revised Take for Gulf of Mexico Seisimic



CRE Comments on Marine Spatial Planning



CRE Transmits its Recommendations on Coastal and Marine Spatial  Planning



CRE Comments on BOEMRE’s  Scoping for its Multisale Environmental Impacts




Where We  Stand on Sesimic Litigation








Who’s Right About Seismic Models?



CRE Recommendation to BOEMRE for the OCS Scientific Committee




Who’s Right About Sesimic Models?




CRE Testifies at NOAA Alaksa Hearings


Attached Files:


CRE Files Comments on Arctic  EIS

CRE Issues Data Quality Alert to NMFS on Gulf of Mexico Take Rule



CRE Files Comments on OCS Five Year Plan



The Implications of the NOAA National System of Marine Protected Areas on the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act


Other CRE Regulatory Filings


Updating a Government Report 24/7

CRE Comments on Atlantic PEIS

FACA Ocean

Charting the Course

MMS MPA Five Year Plan Conflict …

NS Submission

OCS Comments


Data Quality Alert GOM



CRE Comments on NOAA Marine Sanctuaries ICR

CRE Comments on BOEM DEIS Gulf of Mexico 2-13

CRE Comments Arctic EIS

CRE Comments on NFMS Draft Guidelines for Assessing Marine Mammal Stock and GAMMS III

BSEE ICR on Offshore Activities



Library:   Posts written by CRE  (September 2005 thru  December 2012)

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April 2005



[1]  The following studies are used in the CRE peer review of   ” A Review of  the Effects of Seismic Surveys on Marine Mammals “.   Some of the studies presened in the Review  suggest, however slight,  a negative relationship between  marine sound and the well being of marine mammals.


CRE does  not share this view in that it has filed statements  (pg 3) in numerous rulemakings to the effect that a number of  federal agencies have examined the record and they have found no record of that segment of marine sound limited to sesimic operations has had any negative impact on the well being of marine mammals.   The laudable record of no negative impact on marine mammals is testimony to the fact that the existing regulatory regime for seismic operations  is sufficient to protect marine mammals.


Notwithstanding the aforementioned record proponents often cite the above studies or their progeny as a basis for additional layers of regulation.  Consequently we are positioning these studes  for detailed review in an open forum


[2] What is an IPD?


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