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EXECUTIVE ORDER 11222
PRESCRIBING STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR
GOVERNMENT OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES
By virtue of the authority vested in me by
Section 301 of Title 3 of United States Code and as President
of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:
Section 101. Where government is based on the
consent of the governed, every citizen is entitled to have
complete confidence in the integrity of his government. Each
individual officer, employ- ee, or adviser of government must
help to earn and must honor that trust by his own integrity
and conduct in all official actions.
Part II-Standards of Conduct
Section 201. (a) Except in accordance with
regulations is- sued pursuant to subsection (b) of this
section, no employee shall solicit or accept, directly or
indirectly, any gift, gratuity, fa- vor, entertainment, loan,
or any other thing of monetary value, for any person
corporation,or group which--
(1) has, or is seeking to obtain, contractual or
other business or financial relationships with his agency;
(2) conducts operations or activities which are
regulated by his agency; or
(3) has interests which may be substantially
affected by the per- formance or nonperformance of his
(b) Agency heads are authorized to issue
regulations, coordinated approved by the Civil Service
Commission, implementing the provi- sions of subsection (a) of
this section and to provide for such ex- ceptions therein as
may be necessary and appropriate in view of the nature of
their agency's work and the duties and responsibilities of
their employees. For example, it may be appropriate to provide
excep- tions (1) governing obvious family or personal
relationships where the circumstances make it clear that it is
those relationships rath- er than the business of the persons
concerned which are the motivat- ing factors--the clearest
illustration being the parents, children or spouses of federal
employees; (2) permitting acceptance of food and refreshments
available in the ordinary course of a luncheon or dinner or
other meeting or on inspection tours where an employee may
properly be in attendance; or (3) permitting acceptance of
loans from banks or other financial institutions on customary
terms to finance proper and usual activities of employees,
such as home mortgage loans. This section shall be effective
upon issuance of such regulations.
(c) It is the intent of this section that
employees avoid any ac- tion, whether or not specifically
prohibited by subsection (a), which might result in, or create
the appearance of--
(1) using public
office for private gain;
preferential treatment to any organization or
preferential treatment to any organization or person;
complete independence or impartiality of action;
(5) making a
government decision outside official channels; or
adversely the confidence of the public in the integ- rity of
Sec. 202. An employee shall not engage in any
outside em- ployment, including teaching, lecturing, or
writing, which might result in a conflict, or an apparent
conflict, between the private interests of the employee and
his official govenment duties respon- sibilities, although
such teaching lecturing, and writing by employ- ees are
generally to be encourage so long as the laws, the provi-
sions of this order, and Civil Service Commission and agency
regu- lation covering conflict of interest and outside
employment are observed.
Sec. 203. Employees may an (a) have direct or
indirct fi- nancial interest that conflict substantially, or
appear to conflict substantially, with their responsibilities
and duties as Federal em- ployees, or (b) engage in, directly
or indirectly, financial trans- actions as a result of, or
primarily relying upon, information ob- tained through their
employment. Aside from these restriction, em- ployees are free
to engage in lawful financial transactions to the same extent
as private citizens. Agencies may, however, further re- strict
such transactions in the light of the special circumstances of
their individual missions.
Sec. 204. An employee shall not use Federal
property of any kind for other than officially approved
activities. He must protect and conserve all Federal property,
including equipment and supplies, entrusted or issued to him.
Sec. 205. An employee shat not directly or
indirectly make use of, or permit others to make use of, for
the purpose of further- ing a private interest, official
information not made available to general public.
Sec. 206. An employee is expected to meet all
just finan- cial obligations, especially those--such as
Federal, State, or local taxes--which are imposed by law.
Part III--Standards of Ethical Conduct for
Special Government Employees
Section 301. This part applies to all "special
Government employees" as defined in Section 202 of Title 18 of
the United States Code, who are employed in the Executive
Sec. 302. A consultant, adviser or other special
Government employee must refrain from any use of his public
office which is mo- tivated by, or gives the appearance of
being motivated by, the desire for private gain for himself or
other persons, including particulary those with whom he has
family, business, or financial ties.
Sec. 303. A consultant, adviser, or other
special Government employee shall not use any inside
information obtained as a result of his government service for
private personal gain, either by di- rect action on his part
or by counsel, recommendations or sugges- tions to others,
including particulary those with whom he has fam- ily,
business or financial ties.
Sec. 304. An adviser, consultant, or other
special Govern- ment employee shall not use his position in
any way to coerce, or give the appearance of coercing, another
person to provide any fi- nancial benefit to him or persons
with whom he has family, busi- ness, or financial ties.
Sec. 305. An adviser consultant, or other
special Govern- ment employee shall not receive or solicit
from persons having busi- ness with his agency anything of
value as a gift, gratuity, loan or favor for himself or
persons with whom he has family, business, or financial ties
while employed by the government or in connection with his
work with the government.
Sec. 306. Each agency shall, at the time of
employment of a consultant, advisor, or other special
government employee require him to supply it with a statement
of all other employment. The statement shall list the names of
all the corporation, companies, firms, State or local
govrnmental organizations, research organiza- tions and
educational or other institutions in which he is serving as
employee, officer, member, owner, director, trustee, adviser,
or consultant. In addition, it shall list such other financial
informa- tion as the appointing department or agency shall
decide is relevant in the light of the duties the appointee is
to perform. The appoint- ee may, but need not, be required to
reveal precise amounts of in- vestments. The statement shall
be kept current throughout the period during which the
employee is on the Government rolls.
Part IV--Reporting of Financial Interests
Section 401. (a) Not later than ninety days
after the date of this order, the head of each agency, each
Presidential appointee in the Executive Office of the
President who is not subordinate to the head of an agency in
that Office, and each full-time member of a committee, board,
or commission appointed by the President, shall submit to the
Chairman of the Civil Service Commission a statement
containing the following:
(1) A list of the names of all corporations,
companies, firms or other business enterprised, partnerships,
nonprofit organizations, and educational or other
(A) with which he is connected as and employee,
officer, owner, director, trustee, partner, adviser, or
(B) in which he has any continuing financial
interests, through a pension or retirment plan, shared income,
or otherwise,as a result of any current or prior employment or
business or professional associa- tion; or
(C) in which he has any financial interest
through the ownership of stocks, bonds, or other securities.
(2) A list or the names of his creditors, other
than those to whom he may be indebted by reason of a mortgage
on property which he occu- pies as a personal residence or to
whom he may be indebted for cur- rent and ordinary household
and living expenses.
(3) (a) A list of his interests in real property
or rights in lands, other than property which he occupies as a
personal resi- dence.
(b) Each person who enters upon duty after the
date of this order in an office or position as to which a
statement is required by this section shall submit such
statement not later than thirty days after the date of his
entrance on duty.
(c) Each statemant required by this section
shall be kept up to date by submission of amended statement of
any changes in, or addi- tions to, the information required to
be included in the original statement, on a quarterly basis.
Sec. 402. The Civil Sevice Commisssion shall
prescribe reg- ulations, not inconsistent with this part, to
require the submis- sion of statements of financial interests
by such employees, sub- ordinate to the heads of agencies, as
the Commission may designate. The Commission shall prescribe
the form and content of such state- ments and the time or
times and places of such submission.
Sec. 403. (a) The interest of a spouse, minor
child, or other member of his immediate household shall be
condidered to be an interest of a person required to submit a
statement by or pursuant to this part.
(b) In the event any information required to be
included in a statement required by or pursuant to this part
is not known to the person required to submit such statement
but is known to other per- sons, the person concerned shall
request such other person to submit the required information
on his behalf.
(c) This part shall not be construed to require
the submission of any information relating to any person's
connection with, or interest in, any professional society or
any charitable, religious, social, fraternal, educational,
recreational, public service, civic, or polit- ical
organization or any similar organization not conducted as a
busi- ness enterprise.
Sec. 404. The Chairman of the Civil Service
Commission shall report to the President any information
contained in statements re- quired by Section 401 of this part
which may indicate conflict be- tween the financial interests
of the officer or employee concerned and the performance of
his services for the Government.
Sec. 405. The statements and amended statements
required by or pursuant to this part shall be held in
confidence, and no infor- mation as to the contents thereof
shall be disclosed except as the Chairman of the Civil Service
Commission or the head of the agency conerned may determine
for good cause shown.
Sec. 406. The statements and amended statements
required by or pursuant to this part shall be in addition to,
and not in substi- tution for, or in derogation of, any
similar requirement imposed by law, regulation, or order. The
submission of a statement or amended statements required by or
pursuant to this part shall not be deemed to permit any person
to participate in any matter in which his par- ticipation is
prohibited by law, regulation, or order.
Part V--Delegating Aurhority of the President
Under Sections 205 and 208 of Title 18 of the United States
Code Relating to Conflicts of Interest.
Section 501. As used in this part, "department"
means an executive department, "agency" means and independent
agency or establishment or a Government corporation, and "head
of an agency" means, in the case of and agency headed by more
than one person, the chairman or comparable member of such
Sec. 502. There is delegated,in accordance with
and to the extent prescribed in Sections 503 and 504 of this
part, the au- thority of the President under Sections 205 and
208(b) of Title 18, United States Code, to permit certain
actions by an officer or em- ployee of the Government,
including a special Government employee, for appointment to
whose position the President is responsible.
Sec. 503. Insofar as the authority of the
President referred to in Section 502 extends to any appointee
of the President subordi- nate to or subject to the
chairmanship of the head of a department or agency, it is
delegated to such department or agency head.
Sec. 504. Insofar as the authority of the
President refer- red to in Section 502 extends to an appointee
of the President who is within or attached to a department or
agency for purposes of ad- ministration, it is delegated to
the head of such department or agency.
Sec. 505. Notwithstanding any provision of the
preceding sections of this part to the contrary, this part
does not include a delegation of the authority of the
President referred to in Sec- tion 502 insofar as it extends
(a) The head of any department or agency in the
(b) Presidential appointees in the Executive
Office of the Presi- dent who are not subordinate to the head
cf an agency in that Office; and
(c) Presidential appointees to committees,
boards, commissions, or similar groups established by the
Part VI--Providing For the Performance By the
Civil Service Commission of Certain Authority Vested In the
President By Section 1753 of the Revised Statutes
Section 601. The Civil Service Commission is
designated and empowered to perform, without the approval,
ratification, or other action of the President, so much of the
authority vested in the Pres- ident by Section 1753 of the
Revised Statutes of the United States (5 U.S.C. 631) as
relates to establishing regulations for the con- duct of
persons in the civil service.
Sec. 602. Regulations issued under the authority
of Section 601 shall be consistent with the standards of
ethical conduct pro- vided elsewhere in this order.
Part VII--General Provisions
Section 701. The Civil Service Commission is
authorized and directed, in addition to responsibilities
assigned elsewhere in this order:
(a) To issue appropriate regulations and
instructions implementing Parts II, III, IV of this order.
(b) To review agency regulations from time to
time for conformance with this order;and
(c) To recommend to the President from time to
time such revisions in this order as may appear necessary to
ensure the maintenance of high ethical standards within the
Sec. 702. Each agency head is hereby directed to
supplement the standards provided by law, by this order, and
by regulations of the Civil Service Commission with
regulations of special applicabil- ity to the particular
functions and activities of his agency. Each agency head is
also directed to assure (1) the widest possible dis- tribution
of regulations issued pursuant to this section, and (2) the
availability of counseling for those employees who request
advice or interpretation.
Sec. 703. The following are herby revoked:
(a) Executive Order No. 10939 of May 1961.
(b) Executive Order No. 11125 of October 29,
(c) Section 2(a) of Executive Order No. 10530 of
May 10, 1954
(d) White House memorandum of July 20, 1961, on
"Standards of Conduct for Civilian Employees."
(e) The President's Memorandum of May 2, 1963,
"Preventing Con- flicts of Interest on the Part of Special
Government Employees." The effective date of this revocation
shall be the date issuance by the Civil Service Commission of
regulations under Section 701 (a) of this order.
Sec. 704. All actions heretofore taken by the
President or by his delegated in respect of the matters
affected by this order and in force at the time of the
issuance of this order, including any regulations prescribed
or approved by the President or by his delegates in respect of
such matters, shall, except as they may be inconsistent with
the effect until amended, modified, or revoked pursuant to the
authority conferred by this order.
Sec. 705. As used in this order, and except as
othewise specifically provided herein, the term "agency" means
any executive department, or any independent agency or any
Government corporation; and the term "employee" means any
officer or employee of and agency. term "employee"
Lyndon B. Johnson
The White House,
May 8, 1965